Monday, May 25, 2020

Sands Corporation - 1352 Words

SANDS CORPORATION REPORT Letter: To: CEO, Sands Corporation From: Management Trainee Date: August 1961 Subject: Report on evaluating the options available for setting up a new plant either at Kimberly Street or Hampton. There is a report enclosed specifying all the details for evaluating the setting up of the new plant either at Kimberly Street or Hampton. I hope this report helps making your decision. Executive Summary: Located in the Midwestern part of the United States, Sands Corporation is a manufacturing company operating with three plants. Due to increasing government contracts there is a need for setting up a new plant, as there is no space and labour available in the existing firm. Kimberly Street and Hampton are two options†¦show more content†¦High demand for the military and space programs in 1960 and 1961 led to rise in contracts for the company which further increased sales. After world war ΙІ the demand for government contracts went down which lead to fall in net income and sales in the year 1945 and 1946. The company executive, after studying various plant locations has an option of Kimberly Street and Hampton. Since Kimberly Street is located near the main plant and in an industrial area labours are easily available and the resale value will also be high in future. Employees working in this plant would be members of the union, who are operating in the main plant. Hampton is located in the middle of a farming area which is 180 miles away from the main plant. It has workforce but they are either working on their farm or they are hired by the industrial concerns located nearby. Selling a plant in the future in this location is difficult. Excellent transportation facility is available for both sites. The transportation cost for the raw materials and the finished products would be the about the same for both the plant sites. The construction of the plant would take about 4-6 months. If the company was unable to deliver the order on April 10, 1962, it would incur a day penalty of $1000 and also a lose out on future government contracts. Evaluation of the both the plants are necessary on deciding where to establish theShow MoreRelatedEquity One And The Las Vegas Sands Corporation Essay1598 Words   |  7 PagesEquity One and the Las Vegas Sands Corporation are the only two North American real estate organizations to submit their sustainability report on-line to the Global Reporting Initiative. Equity One is a real estate investment organization that buys, develops, renovates, and manages shopping centers in urban neighborhoods and large residential communities across America. Their shopping centers are similar to the ones you may find in your larger metropolitan neighborhoods and includes restaurants andRead MoreSands Corporation1079 Words   |  5 PagesSANDS CORPORATION WRITTEN ANALYSIS AND COMMUNICATION (WAC) NISHANT GADIA FSB-1 26TH August 14 SANDS CORPORATION LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL August 9, 1961 President, Sands Corporation Clairmont, USA Dear Sir, Enclosed is the report on â€Å"The Establishment of New plant†. This report examines the problems, options available and the different scenarios dealt with. Various factors have been taken into consideration for an attempt to take a wiser decision. I hope you find this report satisfactoryRead MoreWritten Analysis and Communication Sands Corporation1539 Words   |  7 Pages Report on Sands Corporation Submitted to Prof. Mukul Vasavada DATE : 15/09/2009 SANDS CORPORATION Clairmont, USA August 14th 1961 To The Vice President (Manufacturing) Sands Corporation From Executive Assistant Sands Corporation Subject: Report on installation of new plant Dear Sir, I am submitting the detailed report on the installation of the new plant. Sands Corporation has two optionsRead MoreHydrofracking1070 Words   |  5 PagesEconomics Blog, 2014) Disadvantages of Hydrofracking Techniques used in hydrofracking  process use materials such as silica sand, these sand particles are known to cause lung cancer, if lung cancer is not the result some people have developed a condition called silicosis, which causes a swelling in the lungs due to structures in the lung being destroyed. Not just water and sand is being used on the fracking process, most companies are adding chemicals to help separate particles and allowing for a easierRead MoreThe Keystone Xl Pipeline Is A Proposed Expansion Of The Current Keystone Pipeline1492 Words   |  6 PagesThe Keystone XL pipeline is a proposed expansion of the current Keystone pipeline that would cover over 1,700 miles from Alberta, Canada to the Gulf Coast of Texas. The purpose of the pipeline is for the transport of extracted tar sands from Canada to the Gulf Coast refineries and ports for export. The proposed pipeline would cross 1,073 rivers, lakes, streams, and the Ogallala aquifer. The Ogallala aquifer is one of t he largest in the world. It provides two million people with drinking water andRead MoreOil Sands in Canada540 Words   |  2 Pagesbanks. The production of the oil sands is a human rights issue as it effects local drinking water , an environmental issue with the destruction of local wildlife and an first nations people issue. By and large the general public in Canada and the United States do not know what is going on in northern Alberta. The public still does not fully comprehend how First Nations communities are the most negatively affected. First Nation Canadians live very close to the oil sands , mostly along the Athabasca RiverRead MoreKeystone Pipelines Is An Oil Sand Pipeline System1952 Words   |  8 Pageslowering your greenhouse gas emissions, not increasing.† said Senator Ed Markey about the keystone pipelines. Keystone pipelines is an oil sand pipeline system, started in June 2010, that runs from Western Canadian Sedimentary Base in Alberta through refineries in Illinois and Texas and also to oil farms and pipelines in Cushing, Oklahoma. TransCanada Corporation first proposed the this project on February 9, 2005. However, this existing pipeline is expected to have 1,700 new miles of pipeline addedRead MoreAlberta Tar Sands Sustainability Report1264 Words   |  6 PagesAlberta Tar Sands Sustainability Report Introduction Tar sands are a combination of clay, sand, water, and bitumen. As a type of unconventional petroleum deposit, tar sands are found in many places worldwide, the largest deposits are found in Alberta, Canada. The Alberta tar sand deposits contain more than 70.8% of the world s reserves of natural bitumen which representing 40% of the world’s combined extra-heavy crude oil and crude bitumen reserves. It is the only bitumen deposits that are economicallyRead MoreKeystone Xl Pipeline Is Doing More Harm Than Good2341 Words   |  10 Pagesthan good. I. In the U.S, the Keystone XL Pipeline is doing more harm than good to the environment. A. Some people think the Keystone XL Pipeline could be environmentally damaging. 1. Production of oil-sands creates 17% more carbon pollution. 2. Environmental damage from a leak of heavy-oil-sands. B. Many people think the Pipeline could be contributing to global warming. C. The Pipeline will also result in environmental impacts during construction and operation. II. Some people believe that theRead MoreThe Discovery Of Oil And Its Impact On The Environment1433 Words   |  6 Pagesan abundance of new opportunities that have helped people create new inventions with the biggest being the automobile. Major corporations have arisen from â€Å"The impact of oil derived, in large part, from its attractiveness as an energy-dense, easily deliverable source of fuel for transportation.† Oil is sometimes coined the term black gold because of its value. Corporations like Chevron have made billions of dollars in the oil industry. With the rise of oil, the destruction of the environment has

Thursday, May 14, 2020

The Ethics of Genetically Enhancing Children Essay

The term designer children is unnerving at first to many. The idea of parents designing the genetic makeup of their offspring makes children seem like a commodity in a genetic free market. Thoughts of a dystopian society like the one in the film â€Å"Gattaca† come to mind. However, taking an immediate repugnant stand against genetic enhancement is not well-founded. A more open-minded inspection of the issue reveals that the idea of parents improving their children’s life prospects through genetic engineering (provided it is safe) is, at its core, not unethical. In fact, some genetic enhancement in addition to correcting deleterious genes to prevent disease is a moral obligation. It is moral to make rational decisions using the science and†¦show more content†¦Genetic enhancement is just another form of enhancement which has the benefit of the child in mind. There are many others: education, medical care, extra-curricular activities, etc. As Goering puts it, a parent does not blink when they give the child vitamin supplements, vaccinations, and dental enhancements (e.g., braces) [Goering, 2]. Imposing parental treatment is a part of being human and is ethical when the intentions are beneficent. There is no real difference in changing attributes of a child for the better at the genome level, or once the child is born. If administering growth hormones to young children to prevent them from being too short [Simon] is justifiable, then so is germline genetic modification of height to produce the same result. Or, if parents are fine with the installation of braces to straighten their child’s teeth, then they should be fine with genetic manipulation instead to produce the same outcome. The two actions are basically the same; the latter is perhaps even better as it eliminates the discomfort of being forced to wear braces. One may object that genetic enhancement is unethical because it is not natural and we are losing something precious by Show MoreRelatedThe Ethics of Genetically Enhancing Children Essays1633 Words   |  7 Pagestechnology continues to improve. With this in mind, the question arises whether sex selection is ethical. Julian Savulescu, Uehiro Professor of Practical Ethics at Oxford University, argues that sex selection is moral, based on his ethical principle of Procreative Beneficence: that â€Å"couples (or single reproducers) should select the child, of the possible children they could have, who is expected to have the best life, or at least as good a life as the others, based on the relevant, available information† [SavulescuRead MoreThe Case Against Perfection : Ethics And The Problems That Arise From It1175 Words   |  5 Pagesof individuality. The parent can now choose how they want their child to come out or develop into. Sandel’s book The Case Against Perfection: Ethics in the Case of Modern Eugenics is a well researched look into examples of modern eugenics and the problems that arise from it. These topics range from the ethics of cloning, athletes using performance enhancing drugs, and other practical uses in everyday life. Sandel’s argument is that there is value in human nature (even with all its flaws), and geneticRead MoreGenetic Engineering Research Paper1341 Words   |  6 Pages This is called â€Å"genetic engineering.† Genetic Engineering is prematurely applied to food production. There are estimates that food output must increase by 60 percent over the next 25 years to keep up with demand. Thus, the result of scientist genetically altering plants for more consumption. The two most common methods for gene transfer are biological and electromechanical. â€Å"Early experiments all involved changing DNA using bacterial vectors†(Randerson, 2001). Through other advances scientists proclaimRead MoreSuperhuman By Choice Or Genes?1716 Words   |  7 Pagesgoes for perfection, there is no limit on how much a person can do to rea ch their ideal perfection status. Their perception is key, an individual’s perception on perfection will shape their views on what Sandel is trying to argue, that genetically altering or enhancing genetic makeup is a bad idea. In the first case Sandel focuses our attention on, â€Å"hyperparenting.† Hyperparenting can be classified as parents who, â€Å"†¦obsessively attend to every detail of their children’s lives† (Sandel, 430). In theRead MoreEssay on Testosterone in Sports1720 Words   |  7 Pagesthe playing field even. However, testosterone levels in men and women vary. For example, Caster Semenya won gold in the 2009 women’s world championship in the 800m swim. The International Association of Athletic Federation (IAAF) tested her for enhancing drugs and for being a man. The results of the drug test were negative. The results of the gender test are kept confidential for privacy. The results are unimportant. The article focuses on what Semenya’s case means for anti-doping, for women’sRead MoreThe Ethics Of Designer Babies943 Words   |  4 PagesClara Johnson Prof. Sara Clark English Composition Essay #4 The Ethics of Designer Babies As we stand in the world today, we as humans have never been more technologically advanced or scientifically intelligent. We have the ability to explore outer space and the depths of the oceans. We are even in the process of developing organs using 3D printing technology. But there is a limit to the extent of advancements that humankind can reach before some begin to pose dangers to humanity or become unethicalRead MoreThe Case Against Perfection By Michael Sandel Summary1460 Words   |  6 PagesIn the first portion of Sandel’s paper titled, The Case Against Perfection, Michael Sandel discussed the moral and ethics debate surrounding the notion of in the future designing our offspring by altering their genes prior to conception. Within his argument, Sandal focuses on four main arguments surrounding the following realms of enhancement: muscles, memory, growth hormone treatment, and reproductive technologies (Sandel 52). Firstly, Sandel argues that genetic modifications in i mproving musclesRead MoreRhetorical Analysis Of Designer Genes By Bill Mckiibben863 Words   |  4 Pagesperformance enhancing drugs for sports is morally correct or not. But, what if we had already manipulated the human body to make it better before we were even born? This is what Bill McKibben is referencing in his essay â€Å"Designer Genes†, on the morality and the biological arms race that could result when dealing with genetic manipulation and engineering. Though the cat isn’t out of the bag for genetic engineering he references what scientists are doing to skim the fine line that laws and ethics have laidRead MoreThe Violation Of Reproductive Freedom1210 Words   |  5 Pagesnotion has come about that that couples and individuals may take an interest in eugenics on behalf of their potential offspring. The idea is that people of their own free will choose to partake in these scientific advances in order to benefit their children and give them genetics that the parents personally find to be advantageous. However, this option would only be made available to those fortunate enough to have finances that would support this (Goering, 2014). Increased economic disparity is an apparentRead MoreAn Immoral Injustice: Designer Babies702 Words   |  3 Pagesbe carried out and not altered. A loss of humanity and a violation of rights occurs because the child affected has no say in what is being done (Catalano n.p.). An additional reason to not genetically change children is because â€Å"being a good parent is surely not about enhancing our children but about enhancing our children’s lives through making them feel loved, accepted and wanted† (qtd. in Catalano n.p). In conclusion, as technology will continue to elevate, so will the possibilities to hold

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Fahrenheit 451 Part 2 - 2208 Words

Montag spends the rest of the rainy afternoon uneasily reading through books while Millie sits idly. As he reads, Montag is often reminded of Clarisse. Meanwhile, the already edgy couple is alarmed by a scratching at the door. Millie dismisses it as just a dog, but Montag knows it is the Mechanical Hound. Luckily, the Hound leaves without causing a disturbance. Millie whines that there is no reason to read books and that that their house will be burned down if anyone finds out. Montag responds with a passionate rant, asserting that they really have no concept of what is going on in the world and that those who seek to learn are quickly quieted, just like Clarisse and the old woman. He talks of the ongoing wars and how people all over the†¦show more content†¦What the world needs, according to Faber, is quality of information like that found in books, the leisure to analyze and understand it, and the right to act on that understanding. Montag and Faber hatch a plan to bring down the oppressive system by planting books in the homes of firemen throughout the country and calling in alarms, to shake the people s faith in the men they both fear and revere for protecting the nation from the dangers of books. However, Faber retreats from idea, saying people are having too much fun to care about the issue. Instead, he suggests they should wait for the impending war to implode society so that they may start anew. The old man is obviously frustrated, disheartened by the state of affairs and feels helpless to do anything about it. Montag, in an attempt to elicit the passion obviously burning somewhere within Faber, begins tearing pages from the Bible. Faber pleads with him to stop and finally agrees to enlist an old friend to print copies of books for them. Montag worries that when he returns to the firehouse Captain Beatty will, with his powerful rhetoric, convince him that burning books is a noble public service. Faber give s Montag a small, green, bullet-shaped two-way radio of his own invention, similar to the seashell radios Millie is so fond of. They plan to communicate through the radio, and thus, from the safety of his own home, Faber will hear allShow MoreRelatedquotes on Fahrenheit 451 part 2 explained1515 Words   |  7 PagesPart 2, Fahrenheit 451 Page 68, 69 1. Mildred says these words to Guy Montag. She tells him that books aren’t people which are found in her TV parlor which she enjoys being with. She calls the people on the TV her family. She compares the books to her TV. She says that the people on the TV tell her things and make her laugh and they are full of colors, whereas the books are black and white and don’t make sense to anybody and doesn’t make her laugh instead makes her feel bad. Page 70, 71 1. ThisRead MoreFahrenheit 451 Comparison Essay1185 Words   |  5 PagesFahrenheit 451 Ray Bradbury’s Prediction of the Future TREVOR YOUNG Fahrenheit 451 is a dystopian novel written by Ray Bradbury that depicts a futuristic American society where books are banned and independent thought is persecuted. Bradbury uses his imagination to take a hard look at a world consumed by technology, and he presents predictions about pleasure, violence and anti-intellectualism that are alarmingly similar to the modern American society. Notably, in both societies people findRead MoreRay Bradbury Once Said, â€Å"Collecting Facts Is Important.1517 Words   |  7 PagesRay Bradbury once said, â€Å"Collecting facts is important. Knowledge is important. But if you don t have an imagination to use the knowledge, civilization is nowhere† ( This powerful quote said by the author of the novel, â€Å"Fahrenheit 451,† provides insight to the overlying problems found in the futuristic utopian society. Ray Bradbury is well known for his masterful use of words to fill his novels with theme. Do we, as readers , pick up on the many universal ideas, or themes, authorsRead MoreTechnology and Society in Fahrenheit 4511723 Words   |  7 PagesDo you  think  that  living in  a technical world would destroy society? Well, in Bradburys novel,  Fahrenheit 451, technology is very advanced and seems to get peoples attention. Youre not important. Youre not anything (Bradbury 163). Fahrenheit 451 is explained as a dystopian literature. Such literature portrays an imaginary world where misguided attempts to create a utopia, or a socially and politically perfect place, results in â€Å"large scale human misery. (Critique by Michael M. Levy) This quoteRead MoreFahrenheit 451 - Symbolism1432 Words   |  6 PagesSymbolism in Fahrenheit 451 Ray Bradbury, perhaps one of the best-known science fiction, wrote the amazing novel Fahrenheit 451. The novel is about Guy Montag, a ‘fireman who produces fires instead of eliminating them in order to burn books (Watt 2). One night while he is walking home from work he meets a young girl who stirs up his thoughts and curiosities like no one has before. She tells him of a world where fireman put out fires instead of starting them and where people read books and thinkRead MoreValues Of The Educated Few Versus The Ideals Of An Uneducated Majority, And How They Majority Is Oppressed1286 Words   |  6 PagesJared Kiker Greene American Lit. 2nd 2 April 2015 Ideals of Society in Fahrenheit 451 The ideals of the educated few versus the ideals of an uneducated majority , and how they majority is oppressed in Ray Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451. In a society where books are made illegal the majority of people are uneducated, and technology has replaced common knowledge. Owning books is a crime in this society, and all books are burned by firemen when they are discoveredRead MoreFahrenheit 451 By Ray Bradbury1661 Words   |  7 Pages1.) In the novel, Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury, Montag’s view on life reverses. Two characters the influence the main character Guy Montag are the old lady whose house and books were burnt down and Mildred. The old lady was caught preserving books in her home. Firemen including Montag were ordered to burn the books. The old lady refused to leave her books, so she too was burned. She bravely gave an allusion as her last words, â€Å"Play the man,’ she said, ‘Master Ridley.â₠¬â„¢ Something, somethingRead More Fahrenheit 451 - Symbolism Essay examples1350 Words   |  6 Pages Symbolism in Fahrenheit 451 Ray Bradbury, perhaps one of the best-known science fiction, wrote the amazing novel Fahrenheit 451. The novel is about Guy Montag, a ‘fireman’ who produces fires instead of eliminating them in order to burn books (Watt 2). One night while he is walking home from work he meets a young girl who stirs up his thoughts and curiosities like no one has before. She tells him of a world where fireman put out fires instead of starting them and where people read books and thinkRead MoreSymbolism in Fahrenheit 4511468 Words   |  6 PagesSymbolism in Fahrenheit 451 Ray Bradbury, perhaps one of the best-known science fiction, wrote the amazing novel Fahrenheit 451. The novel is about Guy Montag, a #8216;fireman#8217; who produces fires instead of eliminating them in order to burn books (Watt 2). One night while he is walking home from work he meets a young girl who stirs up his thoughts and curiosities like no one has before. She tells him of a world where fireman put out fires instead of starting them and where people readRead MoreMorgan Laplante . Mrs. Rhodes . Pre-Ap English 10 . 131561 Words   |  7 PagesMorgan Laplante Mrs. Rhodes Pre-AP English 10 13 February 2016 Happiness Is Not This A person’s happiness is completely different than that of the person next to them. In Fahrenheit 451, the society is given the idea that happiness is found in the fast life. Students crash cars, crack windows, and drive recklessly for fun. Schooling in this society is not even in the realm of learning. Instead, it is filled with sports, electronics, and everything but an education. Death is a quick cremation

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Romeo and Juliet Medicines Used In The Renaissanc Essay Example For Students

Romeo and Juliet: Medicines Used In The Renaissanc Essay eRomeo and Juliet both killed themselves with poison, although it wasnot synthetic drugs. The poison had to be as powerful, some scholars believethat it was hemlock that sealed the fate of the two start crossed love, otherare skeptical, but we will probably never know. The methods and medicines used in Renaissance and Medieval times werevery primitive compared to todays standards. medical concepts were magical anddemoniacal. With no anesthetics, no knowledge of how the human body and itsfunctions people many times would do anything they thought would help, notnecessarily what worked. They to cure people from evil or the devil, people would literallyopen up a persons skull and then massage the brain. Wizards (alchemist) would mix potions, trying to find eternal life , andcures to everything. For years these alchemists tried to find a way to changelead into gold, they as you probably know never suceed. Alchemists as crazy as they may seem to us were in reality the firstchemists discovering metals and mixing them etc. Heres a poem about something that happen during the Renaissance: Ring around the rosies, A pocket full of posies, Ashes, ashes! We all fall down. For hundreds of years children sang this song not knowing the horriblemeaning behind it. Song was written about the Bubonic Plague. Horrible living conditionsin the cities and town helped the Black Plague spread killing thousands andgreatly lowered the population of the world. It would cause glands to swell andcaused a horrible oder in its victims. There was not really a sanitation system in Elizabethan England garbagewas left in the street for days, rats would then get into the garbage and therats would then spread the plague rapidly and in one great wave swept acrossthe country side. No one was safe, but important religious officials like thearch bishop of France were surrounding in fire for months. Back to the meaning of the poem: The rosies refer to rosary beads togain divine help. The people with the plague emitted a putrid odor, so flowerswere carried to hide the smell. Ashes resulted from burning the corpses. Falldown referred to dying people. The theater was often thought of as a breeding ground for disease sowhen the Black Death came in the a town the theater would be shut down forlong peroids of time. Many inventoins were made to help the worlds medical feild. Category: English

Saturday, April 11, 2020

Honesty Is a Best Policy free essay sample

It is true that honesty is the best policy. Today, we see many things around us which are not honest. Many persons are dishonest. Dishonesty may shine for some time. It may earn money, power and men. But all this Is for a short time. Honesty Is courageous, dishonesty is a coward. Honesty is bound to shine after the night of dishonesty. There is no place for dishonest people on the earth. They lose the battle in the end. An honest person only can win a place in the hearts of people.Double- faced men get temporary response but they are thrown out of peoples hearts. Dishonesty cannot face the reality. It has to say hundred lies to hide one act of dishonesty. Therefore honesty Is the best policy. Honesty truly Is the best policy. Honesty Is the best policy It Is a widely recognized saying of Ben]amen Franklin and it is considered one of the wisest sayings. We will write a custom essay sample on Honesty Is a Best Policy or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page It means that honesty was an important trait even several centuries ago. Benjamin Franklin wrote Poor Richards Almanacs, which consisted of wise aphorisms, or sayings. Honesty is the best policy is one of his sayings that is universally recognized and encouraged. This phrase signifies the importance of being a moral and truthful person Honesty is an Important and admirable characteristic that a person can have. I agree with the statement honesty Is the best policy. Everyone, to succeed in his or her life, should follow It. Though we can make money by improper ways, it would not give us good status in society. I believe that honesty is important for both personal life and business life.As we go through the history of the great leaders, they all succeed in their life mainly by their life style. They all followed the truth and honesty. Honesty is very important in many aspects of our life. If we are honest, everyone will believe us. Generally, honesty is the best policy In any situation. Some people are very reliable and they hate those who tell Lies for any reason. Other people accept white lies when situation arises, even If they usually do not like lying. I strongly agree that being honest is the most important consideration in a relationship.Honesty is the foundation of any well-working relationship. Whether it is with parents, friends, or any one else, honesty is important. No relationship can be successful without trust, which is gained from being honest. Many people learn this the hard way. Learned this harsh lesson In a way that really made me understand the Importance of honesty. It was over the summer going in to my sophomore year. I had just received my drivers license and I was driving everywhere, hanging out with friends, and taking advantage of being away from my parents.My parents had planned a trip out of town for the weekend and specifically told me not to have anyone over to the house. As I told a few of my friends about the trip and being by myself, we plotted to throw a party. We went through with the plan; we had a few friends over and hung out for awhile. A few of my close bundles spent the night as well. The next day we spent an hour or two cleaning up the house but it still looked quite suspicious. There were a few minor details that I over looked and my parents noticed.I made a few excuses to cover up the situation, but they didnt completely believe me. The truth finally surfaced; I was in trouble. As I came clean on the events of that night I could see the trusts diminish from their faces. Before, they had great trust In me and I had many . After actions. The night when the honesty policy truly engraved itself in me was when they told me that the worse part about the ordeal was me lying and trying to cover it up. The actual party itself is Just a minor problem because everyone makes mistakes. That night I really grew up as a person.I still make mistakes and bad decisions as everyone else, but the difference is by admitting them, it makes my conscience clear and my parents respect me. The consequences are not as great when you are honest. Through my experiences with being dishonest, I have learned a great deal about being honest. Being honest only helps bad situations and being dishonest only hurts them. Through honesty I have gained stronger relationships with my friends and family and become a better person. I have concluded that to lead a successful well-rounded life, honesty is the best policy.

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Valuation In Accounting Research

Valuation In Accounting Research Free Online Research Papers Introduction This topic focuses on share and firm valuation because when we talk about firm valuation, the most important element is the determination of a share’s price. Valuation is closely linked to capital budgeting, risk, returns and the cost of capital because a return model is a transformation of the valuation model, and the discount rate used in valuation and capital budgeting is either a part or wholly the cost of capital. Contents ? Valuation of critical: Maximise the firm’s value/ordinary shares Estimating the cost of capita ? Three models: Dividend Growth Valuation Models Link to value shares Theorises that Dividend payments constitutes value- Dividend may be increased or decreased depending on earnings Represents equity or ownership Includes voting rights Priority: lower than debt and preferred We can simplify the pattern for dividend payment as follows: The dividend has a zero growth rate, and r is also known as the market capitalisation rate (MCR) or the hurdle rate because the investor expects his â€Å"true† rate to be higher than the market rate or the hurdle rate. r is also called the holding period return, the HPR assumes that investors in securities would expect to get some of cash dividends and capital gains from the eventual sale of the shares. Dividends-Discounting Model (DDM) Where :?= sum of the series E [Dt] = Expected dividends in period t This formula is equivalent to valuing the market value of the firm’s equity at the present value since buying stocks is in fact buying a part of a firm Since future cash flows are constant, the value of a zero growth stock is the present value of perpetuity: zero growth CDVM Where: D= Constant dividend r= Required rate of return This formula is useful for investors who want to know the historical rate of return for a company’s stock, and also when the investor wished to determine the expected required rate of return for the future value of a firm’s stock The dividend growths as a constant rate Since future cash flows grow at a constant rate forever, the value of a constant growth stock is the present value of growing perpetuity: However, discounting the above successively depends on r and g: ? if r=g, the share would be infinite ? if rg, the dividends would grow The DDM models and rate of return it can changeable Free-Cash Flow Valuation models Link to value firm FCF is defined as the cash flow left over after deducting the costs of operations (purchases and expenses) and new investments from revenues (sales) FCF= Net Income (NI) + Depreciation-Cost-Investment Where: Vo =Value of firm at time t FCFt = CFOt Invt or FCFt = Nit + Dept ?WC Invt Since FCF measures the cash flow from the entire firm and hence enterprise cash flow or entity cash flow is more appropriate, which is based on the comprehensive basis, the discount rate used in the FCF context must be the cost of capital for the entire firm, which is the weighted average cost of capital. Since FCF is firm level, the growth rate relates to the cash flows of the entire firm. Growth rate (g) = Plough back ratio x ROA = k where ROA=return on asset Residual Income Valuation Models Link to value shares The alterative to the dividend-discounting model is the residual earnings or abnormal earnings valuation models. This model no need to use dividends or cash, it based on value add book value of equity as fundamental value and forecasts if residual earnings. The Ohlson (1995) model is concerned with a single firm’s market value as it relates to contemporaneous accounting information –future earnings, book values and dividends, and other relevant information. The valuation model is set on an efficient market with risk neutrality (risk free), no arbitrage, no information asymmetry, non-stochastic interest rates and a constant term structure. This equation is formulated by substituting RI for dividend into the DDM (equation Po = Div/r) the RIVM is restatement of the DDM. Though using the RIVM, we can value the firm’s equity using fundamental accounting data and there is no need to use DDM to value equity. Thus the only relevance of the DDM is just to provide theoretical support for using the RIVM Similar to the DDM and FCF models, the RIVM of equation can also be expressed in terms of constant growth model ? The advantage of the RIVM is that it emphasizes the important of fundamental economic performance to equity valuation in particular: The difference between ROE or and the cost of equity capital r The expected rate of growth in the book value of equity RIVM can help explain prices better than the DDM or FCF for two reasons: ? By definition, any increase in RI implies value creation ? By comparing the value of the firm and MWE, we can determine whether the share price is over valued or under value Conclusion ? Advantages of DDM (1) Very intuitive-it is easy to understand the DDM in that dividends are cash flows paid directly to shareholders. (2) The model is parsimonious. (3) Operationalization of the DDM is straightforward and easy to apply. ? Disadvantages (1) Obviously, the DDM only works for firms which pay dividends. (2) The DDM does not explicitly account for risk. (3) We need to make an estimate of the firm’s growth rate, g, but this can be difficult to do in practice. (4) As seen in point (2) above, we are not able to explicitly account for risk. (5) Estimates of the shares’ value are very sensitive to our estimates of g and r. (6) The DDM only works for firms which pay dividends. The dividends and residual income approach attempts to maximize shareholders’ wealth while the FCF approach attempts to maximize the wealth of the enterprise. Research Papers on Valuation In Accounting ResearchIncorporating Risk and Uncertainty Factor in CapitalDefinition of Export QuotasCapital PunishmentRiordan Manufacturing Production PlanThe Project Managment Office SystemAnalysis of Ebay Expanding into AsiaInfluences of Socio-Economic Status of Married MalesPETSTEL analysis of IndiaOpen Architechture a white paperPersonal Experience with Teen Pregnancy

Saturday, February 22, 2020

How and why do modern companies use cost accounting for sustainability Essay

How and why do modern companies use cost accounting for sustainability Refer to one or more example - Essay Example Such is the advantage that a business management team gains from the use of cost accounting. Kinney and Raiborn define cost accounting presents a mechanism of analysis of past, apparent as well as future data to deduce relevant information on the cost of all objects that is important for accurate cost management (4). Cost accountancy entails the use of costing as well as the principles of cost accounting with a central objective to ascertain profitability of a company. Costing, as part of the system, involves ensuring that business ascertains costs of all objects. In the business, cost accounting differs from financial accounting. While financial accounting presents a mechanism of reporting the financial position of a company, cost accounting is a principle that serves as a system of internal reporting of the performance of the company. The key role of undertaking cost accounting is to provide succinct cost information that company management needs to engage in planning and as a guid e for informed decision-making on company affairs. It is important to gain financial information before engaging in any business activity. All cost objects should have their cots stated as a means of informing decisions. With the development of several sustainability strategies, modern companies apply cost accounting in diverse ways. Sustainability initiatives in different parts of the world such as those aimed at introducing renewable energy in Europe directly affect the cost management of modern companies. Modern companies must acknowledge and accommodate the various sustainability initiatives that continue to shape the business environment and bring serious challenges to their continued existence and profitability. The relevance of applying cost accounting in sustainability emanates from the need to determine the cost of the different improvements, which any modern company launches to conform to sustainability requirements. The cost of the diverse forms of innovation adopted by c ompanies to initiate sustainability should be under close consideration through cost accounting. Cost accounting in sustainability entails a succinct evaluation the company’s performance by considering the extent of cost savings that may accumulate from improvements that embrace sustainability, made by the company. Cost accounting, as an important aspect of sustainability accounting, should consider the profits and returns from activities that improve on the social and environmental aspects of a company’s operations. It involves full inclusion of sustainability costs in the financial operations of modern companies. Cost accounting, as way of promoting sustainability, allows companies to choose the best and most economical practice. The choice entails a through and detailed process of consideration of cost and benchmarking of the efficiency of different improvement strategies set. In every system of accounting information, cost management contributes a vital role of pro viding relevant information that is important in the decision-making process. Sustainability accounting is a relatively recent practice that most companies undertake, however, not as part of statutory provision. Sustainable development has three vital pillars, all of which every company’